What We Do
Gender Integration Program
Members from civil society and social welfare organizations, and personnel from public administration departments received gender knowledge and skills from trainings and other awareness programs. However, gender integration and mainstreaming is obviously weak in their structural, institutional and operational procedures and management mechanism.
Some of religious and CSO leaders recognized and appreciated gender equality concept, however, gender integration in policy and guidelines are not fully followed or practiced in their respective organization. Most of organization accepted women participation as a need of gender equality but giving special measures to encourage women for taking decision making and leadership roles was still very weak. It was also found that men had been given preferential opportunity for selection of candidate for vacancy announcements of public service departments.
Gender integration in peace and justice
After years of fighting, in 1994 the KIO and the Government of Myanmar signed a ceasefire agreement that lasted for 17 years. In 2010–2011 tensions mounted between the national government and the KIO, following the refusal of the KIA to accept the government’s Border Guard Force proposal to ethnic armed groups and the agreement between the Myanmar and Chinese government for construction of hydro-power plant dams on the Irrawaddy, Mali and Inmai Kha rivers, without consultation with Kachin Authorities and KIO.
There was progress on the peace processes in 2015, with a Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement signed on 15 October 2015 between the Myanmar democratic government and eight ceasefire groups. While key groups including the Kachin Independence Army, other EAOs did not sign and fighting is still ongoing in areas under their control, this represents a milestone in the Peace Process.
The most vulnerable segments among civil war victims were women and children who are negatively affected by externalities of civil war. However, women participation in current peace building process was too low of peace building participants. Therefore, it was difficult to see the effective addressing of the real needs and issues of women victims in the peace building processes too. Because of conflict in the Kachin State, it is weakness in the rule of law and judicial, increased robbery case and number of drug user is increased, so that IDPs and poor women and men have become suspected person, they have chance to be arrested. The plaintiff is became defendant in the GBV case. The authoritative person have power, they can easy to accused to the marginalize/vulnerable and IDP women and men.
Gender integration in politic
Gender equity issue has been addressed since late 18 centuries by the global nations. Many nations, have been struggling for equality between man and women in political, social and economic arenas since long back. In Myanmar political environment, recently, it was mobilized for 30% women participation in discussion of political framework but the present women participation of political mechanisms and processes is lower than 30%. In Myanmar, gender issue was included only under social sector rather than considering as overarching issues of development, politic, security, economy, and natural resource conservation sectors. By considering above mention statement, constraining factors of gender mainstreaming, gender equality and equal participation of man and woman in structures and procedures of peace building processes, particularly in NCA (Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement) and FPD (Framework for Political Dialogue), have not been eliminated yet.
According to Myanmar government’s constitution (2008) it is clearly written that only those who are competent in Military, Politics, and Economics “must take the leading role” in (1) Administrative (2) Judiciary and (3) Legal departments, which means restrictions for women in those supreme power institutions.
Gender Integration in Natural Resource
Myanmar is endowed with rich natural resources and biodiversity, with 45% of land area as forests, a pristine coastline, and an exclusive economic zone that serves home to productive fisheries and other marine resources. The country has relied mainly on natural resources and agricultural sector to boost its economy, and to provide energy and livelihoods for its population. Natural resources sectors, such as forestry, agriculture, fisheries and mining have played critical roles in the development and economic transformation of the country, and over the years their operations have become more intensive and extractive. However, despite these natural assets, Myanmar remains among the poorest nations in the world. Myanmar ranks 164 out of 178 countries in the 2014 EPI which is developed at Rio Earth Summit, and is among the world’s least developed in environmental management and regulation.
Kachin State is endowed with over and underground valuable natural resources including precious stone like jade and amber. In Myanmar, there are no proper policies and regulations for women participation in decision making processes of extraction of natural resources. Therefore, women participation in obviously weak at all levels not only in extraction but also for environmental protection and conservation programs.
Gender Integration in Health
IDP camps and village in Kachin state have had no adequate infrastructures and especially IDP families have been staying in limited spaces in the camp. Moreover, incidence of diseases at the IDP camp was higher due to poor personal hygiene, lack of environmental sanitation, poor drainage system and chronic malnutrition issues. Reproductive health care for women in the camp and village is much far from proper care and preventive measures.
Availability of inadequate budget for health sector was one of the root causes for insufficient provision of health services in Kachin State. No clear separation of power and delegation of power for legislation between federal and local government made information asymmetry and unfair sharing of budget for health sector of Kachin State. Thus creates poor access to health services of women and children in Kachin State. Moreover, communities from conflict areas encountered poor access to quality health care services and reproductive health services particularly for women where the government health service provision systems was not functioned at all.
- Incidences of sexual harassment, GBV and arbitrary arrest were too high due to weak rules of law
- Weak knowledge of public on CEDAW, good citizenship, and Beijing declaration
- High incidences of human trafficking, loss of individual due to weak rules of law.
- Women participation in decision making processes of extraction of natural resources and land rights was still too weak.
- Women in Kachin state have access to justice that related to social, political and social rights.
- Women in IDP camp faced the problems such as poor availability of health services, lack of sufficient water for personal hygiene, malnutrition, and limited knowledge on reproductive and maternal health care knowledge.
People in Kachin State had proper access to human right and justice and gained sustainable peace.
To strengthen capacity building for promotion of gender integration at all sectors/levels of intervention.
- To provide gender advocacy training
- To conduct gender audit for CSOs
Gender Integration in peace and justice
- Women peace and security (WPS)
- Women access to justice (A2J) and Gender Rule of Law
- Policy advocacy on WPS
Gender Integration in human right
- Research on CEDAW and updated women situation in Kachin State
- CEDAW awareness and Advocacy
- Gender Based Violence
Gender Integration in political rights
- Development of Kachin Women Policy
- Gender Federalism and Constitution
- Women Meaningful Participation in the Decision Making level
- Gender civic education and voter education
Gender Integration in Natural Environment
- Advocacy to stakeholders on Gender Natural Resource Rights
- Research on Gender Natural Resource Rights
- Gender Land Rights
Gender Integration in Health
- Women clinic for IDP women
- Women Community Health (Nutrition, hygiene)
- Awareness raising on basic health knowledge
- Family planning
- Gender and HIV/AIDS